Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, Anti-Oedipus Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. R. Hurley, M. Seem, and H. R. Lane (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983), 4.
 Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1972), 10, 11.
 Rudolf Wittkower, Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1971), 101.
 “For the human body is so designed by nature that the face, from the chin to the top of the forehead and the lowest roots of the hair, is a tenth part of the whole height; . . . The length of the foot is one sixth of the height of the body; of the forearm, one fourth; and the breadth of the breast is also one fourth. The other members, too, have their own symmetrical proportions, and it was by employing them that the famous painters and sculptors of antiquity attained to great and endless renown.” Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, trans. Morris Hicky Morgan (New York: Dover Publication, 1960), 72.
 See Francesco di Giorgio Martini, Trattati di Architettura Ingegneria & Arte Militare, ed. Corrado Maltese (Milano: Edizioni Il Polifilo), 1967. Wittkower, Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism.
 Leone Battista Alberti, Ten Books on Architecture, ed. Joseph Rykwert and Alec Tiranti, trans. (Italian) Cosimo Bartoli and (English) James Leoni (London, 1955), book IX, chap. V, 194.
 Ibid., book I, chap. II, 2.
 Ibid., book I, chap. IX, 13.
 C. Maltese, “Il pensiero architettonico e urbanístico di Leonardo,” in Leonardo, saggi e ricerche per le onoranze di Leonardo da Vinci nel quinto aniversario della norte (Rome, 1954); quoted from Paolo Rossi, Philosophy, Technology and the Arts in the Early Modern Era (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), 24.
 Leonardo da Vinci, The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, ed. Jean Paul Richter (New York: Dover Publication, 1970). See also, Leonardo da Vinci, Leonardo on the Human Body, trans. Charles D. O’Malley and J. B. de C. M. Saunders (New York: Dover Publications, 1983).
 “I have noted that the movements of the head are almost always such that certain parts of the body have to sustain it as with levers, so great is its weight. Better, a member which corresponds to the weight of the head is stretched out in an opposing part like an arm of balance. We see that when a weight is held in an extended arm with the feet together like the needle of a balance, all the other parts of the body will displace to counterbalance the weight.” Leone Battista Alberti, On Painting, trans. John R. Spencer (New Haven: Yale University, 1956), 79, 80.
 Leonardo da Vinci, Codex Atlanticus, fol. 270 r-c; see Carlo Pedretti, Leonardo de Vinci Architecte (Milano: Electa, 1978); (French) trans. Marie-Anne Caizzi (Paris: Electa), 34–35. English text from F. Klemm, A History of Western Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964), 95–97.
 Andreas Vesalius, De humani corporis fabrica (Basileae, 1543), preface; quoted from Paolo Rossi, Philosophy, Technology and the Arts in the Early Modern Era, 7.
 Ibid., 8.
 Andreas Vesalius, The Anatomical Drawings of Andreas Vesalius, ed. J. B. de C. M. Saunders and Charles D. O’Malley (New York: Crown Publishers, 1982).
 The significance of Perrault’s work in relation to the origins of modern architecture has been pointed out by Eduard F. Sekler in Wren and his Place in European Architecture (New York: Macmillan, 1956), 37–57. See also Joseph Rykwert, “Positive and Arbitrary,” The First Moderns (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980), chap. 2; and Alberto Pérez-Gómez, “Claude Perrault and the Instrumentalization of Proportion,” Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1983), chap. 1.
 A summary of Perrault’s scientific career is given by J. Lévy-Valensi, La Médecine et les Médecines Français au XVIIe Siècle (Paris, 1933), 521 ff.
 Claude Perrault, Ordonnance des Cinque Espèces de Colonnes, selon la Méthode des Anciens (Paris, 1683); A Treatise of the Five Orders in Architecture, trans. John James (London, 1722). For an account of Perrault’s work and a discussion of his Ordonnance, see Wolfgang Herrmann, The Theory of Claude Perrault (London, 1973).
 Ibid.; see also Pérez-Gómez, “Claude Perrault and the Instrumentalization of Proportion,” 27.
 Claude and Nicolas Perrault, Oeuvres Diverses de Physique et de Méchanique (Leyden, 1721); see also Pérez-Gómez, “Claude Perrault and the Instrumentalization of Proportion,” 26.
 Perrault, Ordonnance des Cinque Espèces de Colonnes, iv–vii.
 Ibid., vi.
 The theory advocated by Claude Perrault was, however, not without contradictions. While the rules of architectural proportions were regarded as being derived from custom, they were nevertheless fundamental, according to Claude Perrault, for what was considered to be successful architecture. He believed that the role of the architect was to elevate the building above the “merely commonsensical positive beauties,” as Joseph Rykwert puts it, “by endowing it with its clothing or arbitrary beauty.” Rykwert, “Positive and Arbitrary,” 93.
 Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle, ten volumes, Paris, 1854–66; see Viollet-le-Duc, Le Dictionnaire d’architecture, ed. Philippe Boudon and Philippe Deshayes (Bruxelles: Pierre Mardaga, 1979). Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, Entretiens sur l’architecture, two volumes (Paris, 1863 and 1872; Ridgewood, NJ: Gregg Press, 1965).
 As described in a recent article by Hubert Damisch entitled “The Space Between: A Structuralist Approach to the Dictionary,” Viollet-le-Duc’s method discloses certain traits of structural thinking. Damisch writes that “it is not difficult to detect the language of modern structuralism in Viollet-le-Duc’s work, for the text of the Dictionnaire is full of references to elements and functions, systems, logic and structural equilibrium, reasoning, deductions, reactions and counteractions.” Hubert Damisch, “The Space Between: A Structuralist Approach to the Dictionary,” in Architectural Design 50, no. 3 (1980), 84–89.
 See The Architectural Theory of Viollet-le-Duc, ed. M. F. Hearn (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 222.
 Ibid., 225.
 Gottfried Semper, Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder praktische Ästhetik – Ein Handbuch für Techniker, Künstler und Kunstfreunde, München, 1861–63; reprinted with an introduction by Adrian von Buttlar (Mittenwald: Mäander Kunstverlag, 1977).
 “Jedes Kunstwerk ist ein Resultat, oder, um mich eines mathematischen Ausdruckes zu bedienen, ist eine Funcktion einer beliebigen Anzahl von Agentien oder Kräften, welche die variable Koefficienten ihrer Verkörperung sind. Y = F (x, y, z, etc.);” see “Entwurf eines Systems der vergleichenden Stillehre,” in Kleine Schriften, ed. Manfred & Hans Semper (Berlin and Stuttgart: Verlag Spemann, 1984), 267.
 “Die Stillehre . . . fast das Schöne einheitlich, als Produkt oder Resultat, nicht als Summe oder Reihe. Sie sucht die Bestandheile der Form die nicht selbst Form sind, sondern Idee, Kraft, Stoff und Mittel; gleichsam die Vorbestandtheile und Grundbedingungen der Form.” See Semper, Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder praktische Ästhetik, vii.
 The image of God using a compass was probably inspired by Proverbs 8:27, which says: “When he prepared the heavens, I was there; when he set a compass upon the face of the depth . . .” See Eduard F. Sekler, Proportion, a Measure of Order (Cambridge, MA: Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University, 1965), 50.
 See also “The Nature-Art Relationship and the Machine of the World” by Paolo Rossi, Philosophy and the Arts in the Early Modern Era (New York: Harper & Row, 1970).
 François Jacob quoting William Paley’s Natural Theology (London: Charles Knight, 1836), in The Possible and the Actual (New York: Pantheon Books, 1982), 13.
 Giambattista Vico, Opere, ed. F. Nicolini, (Milano, 1953), 293, 307.
 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life and The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (New York: The Modern Library, 1859 and 1871).
 Excerpt from a text originally published prior to the first edition of The Origin of Species and later included in the preface of the work under the heading “An Historical Sketch of the Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species,” Ibid., 3.
 See The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882, ed. Nora Barlow (New York: W. W. Norton, 1958), 87. The autobiography first appeared in print as part of Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, edited by his son Francis and published in 1887 by John Murray.
 D’Arcy Thompson, On Growth and Form (1917), edited by J. T. Bonner (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1961), 9.
 Natural unity was to be equated with the concept of an architectural entity as for example suggested by Frank Lloyd’s Wright vision of an organic architecture. Every part of a building was to be subordinated to the overriding structure of the whole system. A building was considered an organism and part of a larger ecological system placed in a delicate balance between its own structure and external conditions.
 Le Corbusier, Vers une Architecture (1923); Towards a New Architecture, trans. Frederick Etchells (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1960), 123–138.
 Le Corbusier, L’Art décoratif d’aujourd’ hui (Paris: Les éditions Arthaud, 1980); The Decorative Art of Today, trans. James Dunnett (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987).
 Le Corbusier, Aircraft, first published in 1935 (New York: Universe Books, 1988), 8, 19, 24, 49.
 Antoine de Sain-Exupéry, Terre des Hommes, (Paris: Gallimard, 1939); quoted from Barry Maitland, “The Grid,” in Oppositions 15/16, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980), 96.
 Le Corbusier and François de Pierrefeu, The Home of the Man (London: The Architectural Press, 1948), 124. Quoted from Maitland, “The Grid,” 96.
 A more literal comparison between biology and architecture is made by Le Corbusier in his project for the Musée à croissance illimitée in which a direct correspondence is established between the principle of natural growth and the process of building construction. See Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complete, ed. W. Boesiger (Zurich: Artemis), vol. 1929–34, 72, 73 and vol. 1938–46, 16, 17.
 Hannes Meyer, “Bauen” and “Mein Hinauswurf aus dem Bauhaus,” in Bauten, Projekte und Schriften, ed. Claude Schnaidt (Teufen, Switzerland: Verlag Arthur Niggli AG, 1965), 95–97, 100–105.
 See Alfred North Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (New York: The Free Press, 1967), 102, 103, 131.